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China machinery development
Category:Industry trends   Publish:2019-02-13 09:57:05   View:1166次 [Back]
China is one of the earliest mechanical developing countries in the world. China's mechanical engineering technology not only has a long history, but also has made brilliant achievements. It not only plays an important role in promoting China's material culture and social and economic development, but also contributes greatly to the progress of world technological civilization. The history of China's machinery development can be divided into six periods: the formation and accumulation period, from ancient times to the Western Zhou Dynasty. (2) The period of rapid development and maturity, from the Spring and Autumn Period to the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty. (5) The period of all-round development and prosperity, from the Three Kingdoms period to the mid-Yuan Dynasty. (4) Slow development period, from late Yuan Dynasty to mid-Qing Dynasty. (5) The period of transformation, from the middle and late Qing Dynasty to the period of development before liberation. (5) Revival period, Post-liberation development period. Each period can be divided into different stages of development.

(1) The Formation and Accumulation Period of Traditional Machinery

This period is the first period of China's machinery development. The use of stone tools marks the beginning of this period. This is a very long period, which has gone through three stages of development.

The first stage corresponds to the Paleolithic Age. The tools in this stage are mainly made of stone and wood, and there are also some bone tools. In terms of technology, stone tools are mainly made by knocking and preliminary dressing. At the later stage of this stage, grinding stone tools appeared, which made the shape of tools more reasonable. At that time, the types of stone tools were choppers, scrapers, hammers, pointed tools, stone balls, stone spears and stone cymbals. At that time, the tools of other materials were wooden holders and grinded bone needles. The emergence of bows and arrows shows that mechanical technology has reached a certain level at this time.

The second stage corresponds to the Neolithic Age. In this stage, grinding technology is the main method in the manufacture of stone tools. At the same time, there is a complete process in the manufacture of stone tools. There are certain requirements for the selection, cutting, grinding and drilling of stone tools. At this stage, a large number of production tools appeared, such as gongs, axes, shovels, chisels, grinding discs, grinding rods, mortars, drills, nets, spinning wheels, ploughs, knives, hoes, cultivators and so on. The types of tools have not only increased, but also a lot of special tools have appeared. At that time, more complicated machines such as original textile machines and pottery runners appeared, reflecting the remarkable improvement of the development level of machinery at this stage.

The third stage is from the end of Neolithic Age to the Western Zhou Dynasty. From the power point of view, this stage has begun to use animal power and wind power as the driving force. The emergence of ancient cars and sails marks the emergence of new powers. The Shang Dynasty began to use cattle to cultivate land. At this stage, plough has been widely used to cultivate land. There are more kinds of agricultural machinery, and there are also orange buns, rollers and other composite machinery tools. Bronze ware appeared in the Paleolithic Age, but it was not widely used. Bronze tools and instruments in Shang Dynasty began to be widely used. By the Western Zhou Dynasty, bronze casting technology reached a climax. The emergence of bronzes marks the birth of a new mechanical technology and manufacturing process. In this stage, bronze smelting and casting process has undergone a gradual maturation process from low-level to high-level. From the use of one-sided and two-sided fabrication of small objects, to the use of multi-module, core composite fabrication of large devices. In the mid-Shang Dynasty, advanced technologies such as fractional casting have been widely used. In the later stage of this stage, pottery casting technology has been further developed.

Generally speaking, in this period, the power was developed from the use of human resources only to the use of human and animal resources. In terms of materials, it has developed from stone materials to wood and copper materials. In terms of structure, it has developed from simple tools to composite tools and more complex machinery. In principle, the use of leverage, wedge and other principles has developed to the use of inertia, friction, elasticity and gravity. In terms of manufacturing technology, it has undergone a transformation from stone tools manufacturing technology to copper and other mechanical processes. These facts show that Chinese traditional mechanical technology has been formed and developed in this period.

(2) Rapid Development and Maturity Period of Traditional Machinery

Since the Spring and Autumn Period, the development of traditional machinery in China has entered a new period. During this period, iron began to be used, which made great breakthroughs in materials for ancient machinery. The emergence and development of iron and steel technology provide conditions for manufacturing efficient production tools. With the emergence of iron and steel technology, casting, forging and softening treatment, mechanical and thermal processing technology has developed rapidly in this period. Since the Spring and Autumn Period, pig iron has been used to cast a variety of machinery, especially agricultural machinery. During this period, forging technology had a new development, many tools were made by forging method. Softening treatment technology of cast iron appeared in the early Warring States Period. By the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, most casting machinery and tools had undergone softening treatment.

In terms of power, in this period, in addition to the use of the front power, began to use hydraulic power as the driving force of machinery, there were some hydraulic machinery. New breakthroughs have also been made in structural principles. In many machines, complex transmission mechanisms such as gear mechanism, cam mechanism and crank-connecting rod mechanism have appeared. The emergence of machinery such as water drainage, water bunker, guide car, turbidity celestial instrument and ground motion instrument reflects that the machinery in this period has reached a fairly high level in structural principle.

Agricultural machinery developed rapidly in this period, with the emergence of important planting machinery such as Sanjiaolou. Fan truck, an efficient grain processing machine, has also been invented. Milling, Bunning and other grain processing machinery have emerged, and have made great progress. Eastern Han Dynasty

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